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Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in China
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TitleMeasuring Inequality of Opportunities in China  
AuthorGong Feng,Li Zhi and Lei Xin  
OrganizationWuhan University 
Key Wordscircumstance; effort; income distribution; inequality of opportunities; fairness 
AbstractInequality due to factors beyond one’s control is recognized as unreasonable and unfair, which we call inequality of opportunity. From an ex-ante prospect, we measure inequality of opportunity in China by parametric method using CGSS database. Our results indicate that inequality of opportunity on average accounts for 28% of total inequality and difference in family background, geographic diversity, urban-rural gap and gender discrimination contribute to most of unequal opportunities. Moreover, estimated values for provinces are significantly consistent with attitude survey about society injustice, income inequality and inequality of opportunity. The results imply that redistribution should focus on compensating those in poverty with disadvantaged opportunities and it is crucial to provide platforms for disadvantaged groups achieving success. Therefore, governments should put efforts to construct targeted poverty alleviation and social assistance system with explicit orientation, realize balanced allocation of educational resources among different groups, pursue reforms about household registration system to promote basic public services equalization and address gender bias in labor market. 
Serial NumberWP1107 
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